Ustavnopravnopravna i politička priroda Odluka Visokog predstavnika u Bosni i Hercegovini

Autori članka: 
Siniša Karan
Godina izdavanja članka: 
2015
Broj u godini: 
1
Apstrak članka: 

U Bosni i Hercegovini su danas podijeljena mišljenja kada je u pitanju dalji mandat OHR i institucije Visokog predstavnika. Ipak, realno se u dogledno vrijeme očekuje da se mandat Visokog predstavnika okonča. Sve češće se u Bosni i Hercegovini, a posebno u Republici Srpskoj pominje potreba ukidanja kancelarije OHR, odnosno institucije Visokog predstavnika. Razlozi ukidanja funkcije Visokog predstavnika su različiti među entitetima u Bosni i Hercegovini kao i među njenim konstitutivnim narodima.
Autoritet Visokog predstavnika pojačano počinje da se dovodi u pitanje.
Upravo na toj osnovi se sve češće postavlja pitanje da li će važiti njegovi (Visokog predstavnika) pravni akti, posebno pojedinačne odluke, kao što je oduzimanje određenih prava građanima, pravo na rad, političko djelovanje, pasivno biračko pravo.
Predstavnici međunarodne zajednice su zabrinuti da bi zainteresovani domaći politički krugovi mogli postaviti tezu (i biti uspješni u tome) da će svi akti Visokog predstavnika prestati da važe u momentu kada se okonča Aneks X Opšteg okvirnog sporazuma za mir u Bosni i Hercegovini.
Niz nametnutih zakona koje domaći zakonodavac do sada još nije sâm usvojio, u slučaju storniranja, kao pravnu posljedicu bi u stvari vratio BiH na izvorne nadležnosti po Ustavu BiH.
Institucija Visokog predstavnika uspostavljena je Aneksom X (Sporazum o civilnom sprovođenju mirnog rješenja) Opšteg okvirnog sporazuma za mir u Bosni i Hercegovini.
Istovremeno, a imajući u vidu ove činjenice, pravno posmatrano, Bosnu i Hercegovinu nije moguće svrstati ni u jedan poznati oblik međunarodne zavisnosti, medjutim objektivno stanje je takvo da se Bosna i Hercegovina sa ovlašćenjima koje ima Visoki predstavnik i radnjama koje on preduzima, može smatrati zemljom sa specifičnim oblikom međunarodne zavisnosti i posebnog vida starateljstva.

Constitutional and political nature of Decision of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract: Nowadays, there are divided opinions in Bosnia and Herzegovina when it comes to further mandate of the OHR and the institution of the High Representative. However, the e nd of the mandate of the High Representative is realistically expected in the near future. The need to abolish the office of the OHR and the institution of the High Representative has been mentioned increasingly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in the Republic of Srpska. The reasons for the abolition of the function of the High Representative are different between the entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as among its constitutive peoples.
The authority of the High Representative has been increasingly questioned.
It is on that basis that questions arise more frequently whether his (High Representative) legal acts will be valid, in particular individual decisions, such as deprivation of certain rights to citizens, the right to work, political action and passive right to vote.
Representatives of the international community are worried that the interested domestic political circles could set a thesis (and be successful at it) that all acts of the High Representative will cease to apply at the moment when Annex X of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina is ended.
A number of imposed laws not yet adopted by the local legislator himself, in the event of cancellation, would actually return BiH to the original competences under the Constitution BiH, as the legal consequence.
The institution of the High Representative was set up by Annex X (Agreement on Civilian Implementation of the Peaceful Solution) of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Simultaneously, bearing in mind these facts, legally speaking, Bosnia and Herzegovina can not be classified into any known form of international dependence, however, the objective situation is such that Bosnia and Herzegovina with the powers vested in the High Representative and the actions that he is taking, can be considered a state with a specific form of international dependence and a special form of guardianship.
Keywords: Office of the High Representative, Annex X, Dayton Peace Agreement, international community, imposed laws, sovereignty, General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.